tongue anatomy

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tongue anatomy

The aim of this abstraction was to advance a predictive archetypal of cold oropharyngeal adverse beddy-bye apnea (OSA) anaplasty outcomes including success amount and apnea-hypopnea basis (AHI) abridgement arrangement in developed OSA patients.

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Retrospective aftereffect research.

All capacity with OSA who underwent oropharyngeal and/or nasal anaplasty and were followed for at atomic 3 months were enrolled in this study. Demographic, anatomical [tonsil admeasurement (TS) and palate-tongue position (PTP) brand (Gr)], and polysomnographic ambit were analyzed. The AHI abridgement arrangement (%) was authentic as [(postoperative AHI—preoperative AHI) x 100 / postoperative AHI], and surgical success was authentic as a ≥ 50% abridgement in preoperative AHI with a postoperative AHI < 20.

A absolute of 156 afterwards OSAS developed patients (mean age ± SD = 38.9 ± 9.6, M / F = 149 / 7) were included in this study. The best predictive blueprint by Forward Alternative likelihood arrangement (LR) logistic corruption assay was:

The best predictive blueprint according to stepwise assorted beeline corruption assay was: (TS/PTP Gr = 1 if TS/PTP Gr 3 or 4, TS/PTP Gr = 0 if TS/PTP Gr 1 or 2)

The predictive models for oropharyngeal anaplasty declared in this abstraction may be advantageous for planning surgical treatments and convalescent cold outcomes in developed OSA patients.

Citation: Choi JH, Lee JY, Cha J, Kim K, Hong S-N, Lee SH (2017) Predictive models of cold oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty outcomes: Success amount and AHI abridgement ratio. PLoS ONE 12(9): e0185201. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185201

Editor: Clemens Heiser, Technische Universitat Munchen, GERMANY

Received: May 24, 2017; Accepted: September 7, 2017; Published: September 22, 2017

Copyright: © 2017 Choi et al. This is an accessible admission commodity broadcast beneath the agreement of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits complete use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the aboriginal columnist and antecedent are credited.

Data Availability: All accordant abstracts are aural the paper.

Funding: This assignment was accurate by the National Assay Foundation of Korea Grant adjourned by the Korean Government (NRF-2016R1C1B2015652). This abstraction was accurate by the Soonchunhyang University Assay Fund.

Competing interests: The authors accept declared that no aggressive interests exist.

Obstructive beddy-bye apnea (OSA) is characterized by again episodes of a cogent abridgement or complete abeyance in breath during sleep, and is acquired by a absorption or obstruction of the high airway, including the nasal cavity, pharynx and larynx.[1] If apprehension or administration is neglected, OSA can advance to assorted affection including boundless daytime apathy and austere after-effects such as cardiovascular disease.[2, 3] Therefore, alert assay and optimal assay for OSA is important for convalescent accommodating health. There are a arrangement of ameliorative options for OSA such as positional therapy, surgery, weight loss, absolute airway burden (PAP), and articulate apparatus (OA). [4] In general, the optimal assay adjustment is bent according to the patient’s anatomical structures (e.g., tongue, tonsil, bendable palate, adenoid, nasal septum, inferior turbinate), polysomnographic after-effects (e.g., apnea-hypopnea basis [AHI], arterial oxygen assimilation [SaO2]) and claimed preferences.[5]

Surgical procedures for the administration of sleep-disordered breath (SDB) accept been performed back the 1960’s.[6] Based on advancing sites of obstruction, a assorted arrangement of surgical modifications of the high airway can be agitated for patients, including nasal anaplasty (e.g., septoplasty, turbinate surgery) oropharyngeal procedures (e.g., tonsillectomy, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty [UPPP], uvulopalatal accessory [UPF]) and hypopharyngeal procedures (e.g., genioglossus advancement, radiofrequency argot abject ablation, fractional glossectomy).[7, 8] Of these, oropharyngeal anaplasty such as UPPP is one of the best frequently acclimated accessible techniques for OSA and is sometimes performed with nasal anaplasty and/or hypopharyngeal action depending on the patient’s akin of obstruction.[7, 8]

Surgery carries with it assorted advantages and disadvantages. One of the capital drawbacks of high airway anaplasty is the adversity in admiration the assay outcome.[5, 7, 8] According to a assay by Sher et al., the success amount of UPPP is as low as 40.7% back performed about in developed patients with OSA.[9] Back the aboriginal 2000’s, several studies accept been agitated out to advance cold outcomes of surgical administration based on anatomy.[10–12] As a result, anatomical structures such as tonsil admeasurement and palate-tongue position arise to be accessible for admiration the success amount of UPPP, suggesting that assay is added advantageous than severity of OSA in admiration surgical outcomes.[10–12]

A contempo analytical assay and meta-analysis by the American Academy of Beddy-bye Anesthetic (AASM) evaluated cold surgical outcomes application the AHI abridgement ratio, which refers to the admeasurement to which the beggarly postoperative AHI decreases compared to the beggarly preoperative AHI.[8] In that study, the beggarly AHI abridgement arrangement was 33% (95% aplomb breach [CI] 23% to 42%) afterwards UPPP.[8] However, there is still bereft abstracts to investigate the aftereffect of oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty on AHI abridgement according to anatomical factors, as able-bodied as to appraise the aberration amid success amount and AHI abridgement arrangement afterward surgical therapy. In addition, there is little abstract on the development of predictive models based on considerately allegory oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of the present abstraction was to 1) appraisal the aftereffect of oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty on cold outcomes such as success ante and AHI abridgement ratio, 2) analyze success ante and AHI abridgement ratios according to anatomical structures including tonsil admeasurement and palate-tongue position, and 3) advance predictive equation-based models for free outcomes including success ante and AHI abridgement ratios afore oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty in developed patients with OSA.

This attendant abstraction was advised and accustomed by the Institutional Assay Board of Korea University Ansan Hospital, and abreast accord was waived. Inclusion belief were as follows: capacity who 1) were 18 years of age or older; 2) had assorted OSA affection including boundless daytime sleepiness, accepted snoring, and empiric beddy-bye apnea; 3) were diagnosed with OSA (AHI ≥ 5) based on the International Allocation of Beddy-bye Disorders (ICSD-2, 2nd ed.) afterwards accepted polysomnography[13]; 4) bootless or banned to use a medical accessory such as a PAP or OA; 5) underwent oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty (e.g., UPPP, UPF, tonsillectomy) with/without nasal anaplasty (e.g., septoplasty, turbinate surgery, endoscopic atrium surgery); and 6) completed postoperative accepted polysomnography at a 3 ages follow-up. Exclusion belief were as follows: capacity who had 1) a medical history of analytical cardiopulmonary ache (e.g., congestive affection failure, abiding adverse pulmonary disease) or beddy-bye ataxia (e.g., axial beddy-bye apnea syndrome, hypoventilation syndrome); 2) a history of antecedent oropharyngeal OSA surgery; 3) aberrant blubber (a anatomy accumulation basis [BMI] greater than 40 kg/m2); and 4) added cogent altitude (genetic syndrome, neuromuscular disease, craniofacial abnormality).

All capacity underwent an high airway assay and were evaluated application the anatomy-based staging arrangement ahead developed by Friedman et al.[10, 11] Tonsil admeasurement (TS) and palate-tongue position (PTP) were classified from 1 to 4. All patients were staged according to an anatomy-based (Friedman) staging arrangement and adapted anatomy-based staging arrangement (Table 1). The two staging systems were altered in that date II in the aboriginal staging arrangement is disconnected into two sub-stages in the adapted staging system, namely IIa and IIb. Capacity with aberrant blubber (BMI > 40 kg/m2) were not advised in this abstraction based on the exclusion criteria.

An abounding nocturnal accepted polysomnography was performed in all capacity application a computerized polysomnographic arrangement (Alice 4; Respironics, Atlanta, GA, USA). The abstinent accepted ambit included electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, button and leg electromyogram, airflow and respiratory accomplishment signals, oxygen saturation, anatomy position, and electrocardiogram. A beddy-bye artisan conducted nocturnal ecology of all capacity and chiral scoring of all beddy-bye abstracts based on the AASM scoring manual.[14]

All capacity were advised with oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty and/or nasal surgery. In this study, oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty included adapted UPPP (uvula attention technique), UPF, and Tonsillectomy.[15, 16] Nasal anaplasty included septoplasty, turbinate surgery, and endoscopic atrium surgery. All surgical modifications of the high airway were performed beneath accepted anesthesia.

Objective surgical outcomes were adjourned by two methods, namely, surgical success amount and AHI abridgement ratio. Surgical success was authentic as a postoperative AHI < 20 and a ≥ 50% abridgement in preoperative AHI.[17] The AHI abridgement arrangement (%) was authentic as [(postoperative AHI—preoperative AHI) x 100 / postoperative AHI].[8]

Data are bidding as frequencies (percent) for absolute variables, and as the agency ± accepted aberration (SD) for connected variables. In allegory amid oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty abandoned and oropharyngeal OSA with nasal surgery, P-values were affected by Student’s t-test or Mann-Whitney U assay for connected variables and chi-square assay for absolute variables. The Chi-square assay was acclimated to analyze surgical success ante amid stages. ANOVA followed by a column hoc assay (Dunnett’s test) was acclimated to analyze beggarly AHI abridgement ratios amid stages. Forward Alternative [Likelihood Arrangement (LR)] in logistic corruption assay was acclimated to advance the best predictive blueprint archetypal for admiration success. Stepwise assorted beeline corruption assay was acclimated to access the best predictive blueprint archetypal for the AHI abridgement ratio. Pearson’s alternation accessory was acclimated to appraise the associations amid AHI abridgement arrangement and predicted AHI abridgement ratio. SPSS adaptation 20.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was acclimated for statistical assay of all the data. P-values < 0.05 were accounted statistically significant.

A absolute of 156 afterwards OSAS developed patients (M / F = 149 / 7) were included in the final study. The beggarly accommodating age was 38.9 ± 9.6 years old and beggarly BMI was 27.5 ± 3.1 kg/m2. Baseline abstracts including tonsil size, palate-tongue position, and polysomnographic ambit were abbreviated in Table 2. UPPP (n = 137, 87.8%) was performed in best patients, followed by UPF (n = 16, 10.3%) and tonsillectomy (n = 3, 1.9%).

Comparative outcomes amid oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty abandoned (n = 50) and oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty (n = 106) with nasal anaplasty were presented in Table 3. There was no statistical aberration in demographic (age, sex, and BMI), anatomical (tonsil admeasurement brand and palate-tongue position grade) and polysomnographic (preoperative AHI, postoperative AHI, and AHI abridgement ratio) parameters.

The all-embracing success amount was 55.8% (87/156) and the surgical success ante in stages I, II (IIa and IIb), and III were 83.0% (39/47), 52.3% (34/65) [60.9% (14/23) and 47.6% (20/42)], and 31.8% (14/44), appropriately (Fig 1). There were cogent differences in the success ante with account to stages I, II, and III, appropriately [I and II (P = 0.001), II and III (P = 0.034), and I and III (P < 0.001)] However, no aberration was acclaimed in the success amount amid date IIa and IIb (P = 0.306).

Fig 1. Success ante afterwards oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty according to date (N = 156).

A cogent aberration was empiric in success amount amid stages I and II (P = 0.001). There was a cogent aberration in success amount amid II and III (P = 0.034). However, there was no aberration in the success amount amid stages IIa and IIb (P = 0.306). * P< 0.05.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185201.g001

The all-embracing AHI abridgement arrangement was 53.5% (20.5/38.3), and the AHI abridgement ratios for stages I, II (IIa and IIb), and III were 74.1% (35.1/47.4), 49.4% (16.0/32.4) [71.2% (27.0/37.9) and 34.4% (10.1/29.4)], and 30.4% (11.3/37.2), appropriately (Fig 2). There was a cogent aberration in AHI abridgement arrangement amid stages I and II (P < 0.001), admitting there was no cogent aberration in AHI abridgement arrangement amid stages II and III (P = 0.827). A cogent aberration amid stages I and III was acclaimed (P < 0.001), and the aberration in AHI abridgement arrangement amid stages IIa and IIb was cogent as able-bodied (P = 0.032).

Fig 2. AHI abridgement ratios afterwards oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty according to date (N = 156).

A cogent aberration was acclaimed in the AHI abridgement arrangement amid stages I and II (P < 0.001), admitting no cogent aberration was begin in the AHI abridgement arrangement amid stages II and III (P = 0.827). A cogent aberration was articular for the AHI abridgement arrangement amid stages IIa and IIb (P = 0.032). * P< 0.05.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185201.g002

Baseline variables including age, BMI, TS Gr, PTP Gr, AHI, ArI, Min SaO2, and comatose were advised for the adapted equation. The best predictive blueprint by Forward Alternative (LR) in logistic corruption assay was: TS Gr = 1 if TS Gr 3 or 4, TS Gr = 0 if TS Gr 1 or 2

PTP Gr = 1 if PTP Gr 3 or 4, PTP Gr = 0 if PTP Gr 1 or 2

The predicted success ante based on this blueprint archetypal are apparent in Table 4.

Of the baseline variables declared above, stepwise assorted beeline corruption assay adumbrated that TS Gr, AHI, ArI, Min SaO2 and comatose were absolute predictive variables accompanying to the AHI abridgement ratio. The best predictive blueprint according to stepwise assorted beeline corruption assay was: TS Gr = 1 if TS Gr 3 or 4, TS Gr = 0 if TS Gr 1 or 2

Thirty-four percent of the about-face in the AHI abridgement arrangement was explained by this blueprint (adjusted R2 = 0.342, P < 0.001) and the alternation amid AHI abridgement arrangement and predicted AHI abridgement arrangement is apparent in Fig 3 (r = 0.603, P < 0.001).

The purpose of this abstraction was to appraise the cold outcomes of oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty according to anatomical factors, and ultimately to accomplish predictive blueprint models for cold oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty outcomes in adults. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the better distinct academy studies performed to date, absolute 156 developed patients with pre and postoperative polysomnographic data. The after-effects of this abstraction can be abbreviated into three capital categories. First, the all-embracing success amount and AHI abridgement arrangement of oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty in our abstraction was 55.8% (87/156) and 53.5% (20.5/38.3), respectively. Second, the success amount and AHI abridgement arrangement of oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty appear a addiction of stratification according to anatomical structures. Thirdly, predictive blueprint models were developed for admiration the success amount and AHI abridgement arrangement afore oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty in developed patients.

There accept been abundant studies on the ante of success of oropharyngeal OSA surgery, abnormally UPPP.[9–12, 18–20] The amount of success for UPPP ranges from 35%–70% in non-selected patients with OSA[18, 19], and appropriately the success amount of 55.8% in our abstraction fell aural this range. However, back patients with OSA were appropriately called based on anatomical structures, the success amount of UPPP added to about 80%. One of the best acclaimed studies apropos this affair is a address by Friedman et al,[10] who adumbrated that date I OSA patients accept a college success amount than date II or III patients (80.6% vs 37.9% or 8.1%).[10] Interestingly, Li et al. compared surgical outcomes based on two staging systems (anatomy-based vs severity-based) and appear that an anatomy-based staging arrangement is added advantageous in admiration the success amount for UPPP than a severity-based staging system.[12] Recently, Browaldh et al. performed a -to-be randomized controlled abstraction to appraise the aftereffect of UPPP in called abstinent to astringent OSA patients such as Friedman date I or II. They begin that the beggarly AHI bargain decidedly by 60% from 52.6 to 21.1 in surgical assay accumulation (n = 32, success amount = 59%) admitting the beggarly AHI bargain by 11% from 52.6 to 46.8 in ascendancy accumulation (n = 33, success amount = 6%).[20] These after-effects were constant with the after-effects of the present study, which activated cold outcomes of oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty stratified or differentiated into categories according to an anatomy-based staging system.

Surgery success amount has commonly been acclimated as an important cold basis for evaluating postoperative advance in patients with OSA.[17] On the added hand, the AHI abridgement arrangement has afresh been accustomed as an cold basis for surgical outcomes.[8] Thus, little is accepted about AHI abridgement arrangement in admiration cold surgical outcomes afterwards OSA surgery. In the present study, the AHI abridgement ratios according to stages I, II, and III were 74.1%, 49.4%, and 30.4%, respectively. Thus, we articular the achievability that the AHI abridgement arrangement as able-bodied as success amount could be predictors of cold outcomes afterwards oropharyngeal OSA surgery.

It was ahead accustomed that date II patients accept ample tonsils (TS G 3 or 4) and a high-level argot (PTP G 3 or 4) or baby tonsils (TS G 1 or 2) and a low-level argot (PTP G 1 or 2).[10, 11] In the accepted study, we disconnected date II patients into two sub-stages consisting of date IIa (TS G 3 or 4 and PTP G 3 or 4) and IIb (TS G 1 or 2 and PTP G 1 or 2) and compared cold outcomes such as success amount and AHI abridgement arrangement amid these two sub-stages. There was no cogent aberration in the success amount amid stages IIa and IIb, admitting a cogent aberration was acclaimed in the AHI abridgement arrangement amid the two sub-stages. Indeed, it is anticipation that a adapted anatomy-based staging arrangement including two sub-stages may be accessible in evaluating cold outcomes afterwards surgery. However, added analytic trials are acceptable to affirm that the two sub-stages may be associated with the anticipation of success or AHI abridgement postoperatively.

In the present study, we developed two predictive blueprint models for cold outcomes afterwards oropharyngeal OSA anaplasty based on demographic (age, sex, BMI), anatomical (tonsil size, palate-tongue position), and polysomnographic ambit (AHI, ArI, minimum SaO2, snoring). Assorted attempts accept been fabricated to actuate predictors of success in oropharyngeal OSA surgery.[18, 19, 21, 22] However, there may be some differences with account to predictors accompanying to advance afterwards oropharyngeal OSA surgery. Gislason et al. prospectively advised favorable break including severity of disease, amount of anatomy weight, and radiologic allegation for the success of UPPP in 34 afterwards patients with OSA and begin that lower AHI and BMI are cogent predictive factors.[21] Doghramji et al. activated whether preoperative Müller action application fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometry could adumbrate the after-effects of UPPP, and assured that neither access is advantageous for free acknowledged assay outcomes in patients.[22] Likewise, Millman et al. advised simple predictors of advancement afterwards UPPP and appear that a abbreviate mandibular plane-hyoid ambit (MP-H ≤ 20 mm) is the distinct best important predictive agency of postoperative acknowledgment amid baseline abstracts including anthropometry, cephalometry, and polysomnography.[19]

The present abstraction had several limitations. First, this was a attendant analytic analysis. Thus, we could not administer or validate the predictive blueprint models with addition OSA accommodating group. Second, our after-effects may not be universally applicative to all patients with OSA, because the ambit of our abstraction citizenry may be somewhat altered from archetypal OSA populations with account to age, sex, race, and BMI. Third, the cardinal of women included in this abstraction was almost small. Finally, radiologic allegation such as cephalometry were not advised in our study.

The after-effects of the present abstraction accepted the achievability of considerately admiration outcomes including success amount and AHI abridgement afore oropharyngeal OSA surgery. The anew developed predictive blueprint models for cold oropharyngeal anaplasty outcomes may be advantageous for 1) planning surgical assay and 2) convalescent success ante and the AHI abridgement arrangement via adapted alternative of developed patients with OSA. Further -to-be studies will be bare to affirm and validate the account of our predictive models.

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